Online Gambling Laws and Jurisdictions

Two Plus Two message board. Forbes reports possible problem with Apple's new phone operating system. In , Bermuda for the first time determined how much money a reinsurer needed by how much risk it assumed. She said the agency is reviewing companies' financial arrangements more closely and is more apt to order owners to infuse cash into flagging companies. How insurers make millions on the side.

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According to Time , the opposition to legalized domestic online gambling is depriving the United States economy from a huge potential source of tax revenues. On April 26, PokerStars began processing cashouts. The account belonged to Full Tilt and its co-founder, Raymond Bitar. This was one of nine frozen Irish accounts.

Poker players by May 15, following the April 15 events. Campos is part-owner and vice chairman of the board of directors for SunFirst Bank. On Monday, April 18, Campos, of St. George, Utah, appeared in a Utah court, but did not enter a plea. Bradley Franzen made a court appearance in Manhattan on Monday April 18, entering a plea of 'not guilty' to the nine counts listed on his indictment, including bank fraud and money laundering charges. It is not known when he will be sentenced, however, it appears that Franzen struck a plea agreement with prosecutors, in which he agreed to cooperate in the probe, in return for which prosecutors would recommend leniency.

He made his initial court appearance in Miami on April 27, and was remanded in custody to his next appearance on April Ray Bitar surrendered to authorities on July 2, The plea deal calls for him to receive a sentence between a year and a year and a half in prison. Sentencing was set for April 19, Rubin agreed to plead guilty to three of the nine counts of conspiracy to commit bank fraud he faced and was expected to be sentenced to 18—24 months of prison.

John Campos pleaded guilty in March to a single misdemeanor bank gambling charge. He was sentenced in June to three months in prison. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. United States Department of Justice website seizure notice. Sample Senator response to Poker's Black Friday.

Archived from the original PDF on April 19, The New York Times blog. Cracks Down on Online Gambling". The New York Times. Alleges Poker Site Stacked Deck". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 28 April PokerStars settles, acquires FTP". Archived from the original on Attorney's Office on Tilt". Mahoney Criminal Defense Group. How is helping people play a card game like murder? Pokerstars — Use of Pokerstars. United States Department of Justice. Archived from the original PDF on October 18, Retrieved September 22, Archived from the original on September 23, Retrieved September 26, Administration 'wasting time' with online poker crackdown".

Deal could allow U. Aldernyey Gambling Control Commission. Two Plus Two message board. First Full Tilt account unfrozen". Guilty Plea in Online Poker Case".

Ex-Utah exec gets 3 months in NY poker case. Retrieved from " https: United States district court cases United States computer case law United States gambling case law Online gambling Poker and society in United States case law in poker in American television controversies. Wikipedia articles in need of updating from August All Wikipedia articles in need of updating Use mdy dates from February All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from September All articles with vague or ambiguous time Vague or ambiguous time from April Articles with unsourced statements from March Articles with unsourced statements from April Articles with unsourced statements from March Articles containing potentially dated statements from August All articles containing potentially dated statements.

Views Read Edit View history. This page was last edited on 3 September , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Isai Scheinberg , et al. Collinsia verna is one of only a couple found in the east, and this is the only one with widespread distribution in the east. This species is native to Tennessee, but the plants photographed here are from a long-naturalized population in Hamilton County, TN.

The genus is named for Zacchaeus Collins, an early 19th-century botanist. This beautiful member of the Lily family has grass-like winged stems frequently growing in clumps. The lovely blue flowers with yellow centers are at the end of the grass-like stems. Sisyrinchium is a very confusing genus, even among botanists - much more to a rank hobbyist as myself.

Based on the following criteria, I'm calling this S. The other species that are possibles in Walker County because they may have purple coloring in the spathes are: This plant has narrower stems than most of the Sisyrinchiums I've seen around here, which I believe to be S.

However, the stems in this plant may be too wide for S. It flowers in late spring and early summer. Clintonia borealis is one of four species of Clintonia found in the United States; all are native. Clintona borealis has a yellow-green flower, with usually 3 to 8 of them in the raceme, while Clintona umbellata is white, usually speckled, with 10 to 24 in an umbel. Clintonia umbellata may have narrower leaves than borealis ,and while borealis may have a few hairs on the margins, umbellata has many.

Clintonia is a small genus of only 5 species, 4 of which are native to North America - the other one is Asian. Two of the North American species are western, the other two are more eastern. Clintonia umbellulata is a species primarily of the Appalachian Mountains, found from north Georgia and South Carolina northward to western New York. It is a protected plant in New York and Ohio. The other eastern species is Clintonia borealis , which is found at higher elevations of the Appalachian Mountains in the southern end of its range also north Georgia and South Carolina but is much more widespread and at lower elevations in the northern tier of states.

Virginia Bluebell is a showy, early spring wildflower found through most of the eastern United States. There is much variability in the classification of blueberries and their relatives. Some authorities place them in several different genera, and others place them all in Vaccinium , subdividing it into several sections.

Broadly described, Vaccinium includes blueberries, cranberries, and bilberries, and may include as many as species worldwide. There are some other "berry" common names applied to Vaccinium as well, such as deerberry and huckleberry - both of those may also be applied to species in other genera as well.

Since they are similar in appearance and can hybridize, identification can be difficult; fortunately the fine folks at the Wolf Creek Trout Lily Preserve had already identified these. Elliott's Blueberry is a true blueberry in the sense that it is in the Cyanococcus section of Vaccinium ; for those who subscribe to the narrower classifications, it is classified by some as Cyanococcus elliottii. It is primarily a species of the coastal plains of the southeastern United States, growing in bottomlands and on sandy slopes near rivers primarily in coastal plains from Virginia south to Florida and west to Texas.

Finding consistent information on the Buchnera genus has been somewhat difficult. It has been classified in the Scrophulariaceae family Figworts , but as that family is being dismantled, Buchnera most recently has been placed in Orobanchaceae Broomrape family , possibly in part due to its hemiparasitic nature - it gets some nourishment from the roots of other plants no one plant species in particular , but also produces its own nourishment through photosynthesis.

Two Buchnera species are found only in a single state each - Hawaii has the introduced species Buchnera pusilla and Arizona has Buchnera obliqua. There is some dispute as to the identity of a species found in some southeastern states - either Buchnera longifolia or Buchnera floridana , depending on which authority to which you subscribe. Buchnera americana is the most widely distributed North American species in the genus, and is found historically in 24 states.

It now has protected status or is no longer present in at least 7 of them, perhaps in as many as 13 states.

It is also very rare in Canada, being found only in a small area of Ontario, where it has Endangered status. Found at least historically in: Small plant with mostly basal leaves; stem leaves are opposite and quite small. Can form large colonies. These tiny plants can be easy to miss when blooming single, but even with their 2 to 4 inch height, they're hard to miss with the frequent masses blooming together. Houstonia purpurea is in a group of Houstonia species with multiple flowers in the inflorescence - subgenus Chamisme.

My experience with Bluets prior to identifying this plant was with the smaller bluets with solitary flowers on usually terminal pedicels - H. Two of the three varieties of this species, H.

The third variety, var. Some authorities recognize it as a separate species, Houstonia montana. While the other two varieties can be quite common in parts of their ranges, var. There are about 18 species of Houstonia found in North America, mostly in the east and the south, with Texas having the honor of the most species. Houstonia serpyllifolia has a relatively narrow distribution, found in the Appalachian Mountains from Pennsylvania perhaps historically only south to extreme northeast Georgia and western South Carolina.

This is normally a late spring through early summer blooming species, but these were photographed in a south-facing rock bluff at about ' in September. Not having knowingly encountered this parasitic plant previously, I was surprised to find that it is found in every state in the United States except for Hawaii.

It's also found in much of Canada. It may attach its feeder roots to the roots of many different species of plants. Plants of the genus Orobanche are classified as a noxious weed or similar pest plant in the United States federally and in 9 states specifically, but there is an exception for native species in all cases but two states Massachusetts and Florida , and Florida specifically excludes Orobanche uniflora from its noxious weed list, which leaves only Massachusetts with a negative classification for One-flowered Broomrape.

An explanation of the somewhat unfortunate name is probably appropriate. A "rapum" is a term for a knob of roots, to which Orobanche attach to perform their nefarious parisitic activities. Thalesia uniflora, Aphyllon uniflorum, Orobanche porphyrantha, Orobanche purpurea, Orobanche sedii, Orobanche terrae-novae. Weakley classifies this plant as Aphyllon uniflorum in his esteemed Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States , and that change - return; it has bounced between Orobanche and Aphyllon over the years since - that change seems to be generally accepted now based on a paper published in by Adam C.

Aesculus octandra - Yellow Buckeye - is the largest of the 6 or native species of Buckeye found in North America, growing to ' tall there are another half-dozen or so species native to Asia and Europe. It grows in rich forests from lower elevations all the way up to mountain tops within its range - generally the Ohio Valley and southern Appalachians, and is one of the most common trees in the southern Appalachians.

I know it more from young trees, because they are easy to spot in the understory with the palmate leaf structure and showy flowers. I didn't realize until researching for this description that there are two more Buckeyes within the range of Yellow Buckeye that may also have yellow blossoms - Aeculus sylvatica Painted Buckeye and Aesculus glabra - Ohio Buckeye. Some key diagnostics are mentioned with the photos below. Black Cohosh is well-known for medicinal uses; as with many plants with medicinal value, it is also poisonous if not used properly.

The plant is up to about 8 or 10 feet tall, branching with several inflorescences on each plant. Actaea racemosa was originally classified in the Actaea genus by Linnaeus, but Nuttall reclassifed it to Cimicifuga based on the follicles.

However, a study by James A. Compton, Alastair Culham, and Stephen L. Jury, using DNA testing and other techniques, has recommended that the genus should be considered part of the Actaea genus. If considered separate, the Actaea genus is Baneberry with four species; the Cimicifuga genus is Bugbane containing six species. ITIS has changed their classification of this species to Actaea sometime in the past few years. At some point I'll change this record on USWildflowers.

It is classified as Endangered in Illinois and Massachusetts. Some experts consider Trautvetteria caroliniensis - Carolina Bugbane - to be monotypic, although other authorities consider there to be 4 to 6 species in the genus. While some authorities recognize three varities of Trautvetteria caroliniensis - var. There is disagreement even on that classification, and most authorities consider the plants in these three disjunct geographical regions to be the same species, since the differences between the varieties seemed primarily to be geographic.

There also appears to perhaps be an as-yet unnamed new species in the genus which has been found in Claiborne County, Tennessee. Trautvetteria caroliniensis is protected with a Rare classification in Pennsylvania, and is likely extirpated in Indiana. While there are 14 species of Bundleflower Desmanthus in the United States, Desmanthus illinoensis - Prairie Mimosa - has by far the widest distribution.

Most species are limited to one or two states each, with a handful in a few more states than that, but Desmanthus illinoensis is found in 29 states in the south and central parts of the United States. Texas has the prize with the most Desmanthus species, with 10 species found in the state. Acuan illinoense ; Mimosa illinoensis Found in: While there are several species in Sicyos in the United States, Sicyos angulatus is the most widespread.

The others are found in only 1 or 2 states Sicyos ampelophyllus in 3 , but Sycyos angulatus is found in 37 states and in Canada as well - clearly another of the few species in the Cucumber Family Cucurbitaceae found in temperate climates. Bur Cucumber is considered a noxious weed in Delaware, Indiana, and Kentucky.

This vine grows up to 25' long and may have multiple stems. It has branched tendrils which allow it to climb over fences and other plants. Burnet means brown - color of the post-mature flower heads.

Salad Burnet is one of the common names, because the plant was brough over from Europe as a food - it is used in salads, drinks, and dressings, and is reported to have a cucumber-like flavor. The plant is eaten not only by humans, but also the seeds or foliage are eaten by birds, elk, deer, rodents, hares, and rabbits, and is a valuable food source for these animals.

In spite of being non-native, it does not appear to be aggressive in crowding out native species. This is one of only three species of Diervilla - Bush Honeysuckle. Officially listed as Threatened in Tennessee, Mountain Bush Honeysuckle seems to be even rarer in Alabama, Georgia, and North Carolina, the only other states where it is recorded.

It's not that I don't run across them often; it's just that with the number of different species - the USDA lists 93 species in the United States - and with many species looking very similar to others in the genus, it takes a lot of effort and research to narrow it down to a specific species. This one, for example, I've been working on off and on for nearly a year.

I originally thought it was the native Hooked Buttercup Ranunculus recurvatus. But then I noticed the achene beak on the plant I was researching was not nearly long enough to be Hooked Buttercup. My next choice was an introduced species, Smallflower Buttercup Ranunculus parviflorus which has a hooked beak on the achene, but much shorter than in R. I finally settled on the native Buttercup Ranunculus abortivus - Littleleaf Buttercup. There may have been other, similar small-flowered Buttercups that I eliminated because they aren't found in northwest Georgia, so if you're trying to identify one outside that area, this might not be your species.

But if you call it a Hooked Buttercup, who's going to argue with you? Ranunculus abortivus is found in all but six states: There are about 40 species of Centrosema worldwide; 3 are found in the continental United States.

There are also 2 additional Centrosema species found in Puerto Rico; 1 of those is also in the U. It is primarily a plant of the southeastern U. It is Endangered in New Jersey. Since this is the only Centrosema species in most of its range, and it is similar to Clitoria mariana , is it most confused with that species. These plants share the trait of having the standard lower than the other petals; most legumes have the standard held above the other petals.

While there are 17 species in the Cephalanthus genus worldwide, there are only two species of Buttonbush found in the United States. Mexican Buttonbush, Cephalanthus salicifolius is native to a couple of the southernmost counties in Texas, the only state in the U.

The species presented here, Common Buttonbush - Cephalanthus occidentalis - is found throughout the eastern United States and Canada, as far west as Nebraska and Texas, and is also found in Arizona and California. I find it curious that it makes the jump from Texas to Arizona, but is apparently not found in New Mexico, which lies between those two states.

Some authorities recognize two varieties, with the western variety known as California Buttonbush. Common Buttonbush is a wetland shrub or small tree which can grow to nearly 10 feet tall along the banks of streams, ponds, lakes, marshes, and in other wetland areas. The bark contains a poison that will cause vomiting, paralysis, and convulsions if eaten.

There are 8 species of Diodia - Buttonweed - found in the United States, although only four of these are found in the "states proper" - the other 4 species are found in the U.

Territories of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. While this plant is officially listed as Threatened or Endangered in Indiana and New Jersey, it also is considered a weed by some authorities, and I can attest to its weediness, with the example here photographed in an area it had taken over in a small garden patch we had. It is noteworthy, however, that it was subsequently pushed out by the much more aggressive non-native invasive Ground Ivy Glechoma hederacea.

Virginia Buttonweed is a branching, sprawling plant with opposite leaves. Diodia teres is a wildflower many consider to be a weed. While it can be a creeping plant with reclining stems, in my experience it is more likely to be upright than its equally invasive cousin, Virginia Buttonweed D.

The genus Clinopodium is in flux; depending on whether you, as many authorities do, include various other genera in the Mint family such as Satureja Satureja glabella var.

The genus has member species around the globe, and even narrowly circumscribed the several species found in the United States are spread across the nation, although most species individually have relatively narrow distribution.

Clinopodium glabellum Glade Savory is one of those narrowly distributed species, a small plant found in limestone glades in only three states - a couple of counties in Alabama, a several counties in central Tennessee, and a few counties in northern Kentucky. Although the USDA map to the right shows it in Virginia, most authoritative sources believe those reports are due to common confusion with the very similar and much more widely distributed Clinopodium arkansanum Arkansas Calamint.

In spite of the beauty of its blossom, the California Poppy is considered to be a weed by many people. Native to North America, scattered wild populations of this plant are found in most states. However, since it was first collected on a Russian exploratory voyage to the west coast of North America in the early 19th century, it is likely that most of the eastern populations are the result of seeds and plants brought back from the west, rather than from native populations in those areas.

The California Poppy is the state flower of California. It grows in rich, shady, moist coves. The blooming period lasts for several weeks in April and May. This plant blooms in early to mid-spring and grows in moist meadows and on grassy slopes. The ones photographed here were in a marshy area along a stream at an elevation of around feet.

The bulbs of the plant are edible and were used as a significant food source for native Americans. However, the bulbs look similar to those of Death Camas - the name of that plant is indicative of its poisonous nature - so beware!

Camassia quamash is found in the Rocky Mountain and west coast states. Yellow aster with blooms at the end of smooth stem, rising from a floret of hairy dandelion-like basal leaves.

Other common names are common cat's-ear, false dandelion, frogbit, gosmore, and spotted catsear. Fire Pink has a strikingly beautiful scarlet red springtime blossom. There are two other Silene species with scarlet flowers and similar ranges - Silene rotundifolia Roundleaf Catchfly and Silene regia Royal Catchfly.

Royal Catchfly does not have the deeply notched petals of the other two species, and is a taller plant. For the other two species, the stamens and styles are also more exserted in S. The veining in the calyx of S. The shape of the flower petals are somewhat different as well, but the leaf shape may be the most obvious difference between the species. Two more scarlet Silene species occur west and south of the eastern scarlet species: Silene plankii - endemic to central New Mexico, a small area of a single county in the tip of western Texas, and into the Sierra del Carmen in Coahuila, Mexico.

Silene laciniata Cardinal Catchfly, Mexican Pink , which is large-flowered with deeply lobed petals. I originally identified this as Silene virginica - Fire Pink, but S. The USDA Plants Database doesn't have this listed near Polk County, TN, where I photographed this specimen, and I don't have photographs of the rest of the plant, but I have a reasonably high level of confidence in that identificaiton.

Starry Campion is listed as of Special Concern in Connecticut, Threatened in Michigan, apparently no longer occurs in Rhode Island based on its Historical classification. Royal Catchfly - Silene regia is a plant of rocky prairies, glades, and open woods with attractive scarlet red flowers.

It appears similar to Fire Pink - Silene virginica - but Silene regia has a much smaller distribution - 12 states, and in 6 of those states it is protected due to its rarity, having Rare, Endangered, or Threatened status. It is possible that it has no longer survived in Knox County, the only county in Tennessee where it was found.

The photographs on this page were taken at what may be the only remaining site for Royal Catchfly in the state of Georgia - thanks to Alan Cressler for the information on this location. The flowers are also somewhat similar to those of both Silene rotundifolia and Silene virginica , but Silene regia is a taller plant and the petals are much more shallowly notched, or perhaps not notched at all. Silene latifolia is part of the large Silene genus, which has about species worldwide; 70 in North America.

These numbers include plants that were previously classified in the genera Lychnis , Melandrium , and Viscaria. White Campion, which blooms in the summer and fall, was introduced into North America from its native Europe, and has spread across most of the United States except for a few southern states, and across Canada except for a few northern provinces since then.

It is similar to Silene vulgaris - Bladder Campion - and some publications have apparently mistakenly applied the name Silene latifolia or Silene latifolia var. There are around 55 to 65 species in Ceanothus , all in North America, but only 3 are found east of the Mississippi. Those three are the species presented on this page - New Jersey Tea Ceanothus americanus and Jersey Tea Ceanothus herbaceus , both of which are fairly widespread on both sides of the Mississippi, and Littleleaf Buckbrush Ceanothus microphyllus , which is found only in southern Alabama, southern Georgia, and in Florida.

Most of the other Ceanothus species are endemic to California. Ceanothus americanus is a shrub found in every state east and nine states west of the Mississippi River. It is Threatened in Maine. The leaves of the plant can be dried and used to make a tea which was a common substitute for Chinese tea during the American Revolutionary period when imported tea had such high tax rates. Chrysogonum is a monospecific genus native to the eastern United States. In the past some authorities have separated the genus into two species based, I think, on whether or not the plant was stoloniferous - C.

Now the plant is classified into three varieties: It is the shortest of the varieties, with the leafy clumps growing up to about 16 inches high, and the flowering stems can reach 2 feet. The early flowering stems do not have leaves, but later stems are leafy. It is a more northern variety, with little or no overlap with var. It has stolons with shorter stolon internodes than var. While it is stoloniferous like var. It is sometimes known as Carolina Green and Gold, appropriate since this is the "middle variety" in pretty much all ways, including range.

It is the shortest variety, with the flowering stems rarely growing more than 5 inches tall, and they do not develop leaves on the flowering stems.

This southernmost variety is sometimes known as Gulf Coast Green and Gold, since it is known only in the Gulf Coast states, plus Georgia. Chrysogonum virginianum - all three varieties - are used in flower gardens as a groundcover, both for their foliage and beautiful bright golden-yellow flowers. Sulfur Cinquefoil is an upright perennial with hairy stems to nearly 3 feet tall, found frequently along roadsides throughout most of the United States. This non-native was introduced from Europe, and is so invasive that despite its beauty is considered an obnoxious weed in Colorado, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington, and is found in all but 5 states.

Sulfur Cinquefoil is also known as Roughfruit Cinquefoil. There is a Potentilla species found in every state in the U. Potentilla simplex is a species of the eastern half of North America, being found from the plains states to the east coast, excluding Florida. The Clarkia genus contains 41 species. While most of the species are found only in California, Clarkia pulchella is the only one not known in California, and was found by Meriweather Lewis in what is now Idaho in It was first described by William Clark in May of that year.

It was the first species described in the genus, which was later named for William Clark. Clarkia pulchella is found in 6 northwestern states and has disjunct populations in 4 eastern states. My initial identification of this species was using the excellent book Idaho Mountain Wildflowers by Scott Earle.

It is hard to nail down a scientific name for Stansbury's Cliffrose, with the first disagreement among authorities being the spelling of the species epithet - stansburiana more commonly used or stansburyana used by ITIS and some other authorities, more closely aligning with its namesake, American civil and topographical engineer Howard Stansbury, who died in While it appears that virtually all authorities now agree that species within the genus Cowania this plant was formerly known as Cowania stansburiana or Cowania stansburyana , are now properly classified within Purshia there is disagreement on whether it is a separate species, or should be classified as Purshia mexicana var.

However you name it, this lovely plant grows in dry woodlands and desert scrub in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. The photos on this page were taken along the south rim of the Grand Canyon in Coconino County, Arizona. Red Clover is an introduced species which has become naturalized in every state in the United States and all but one Canadian province. While many species that have become so widely naturalized would be considered invasive, this plant has been welcomed due to its economic importance, even becoming the state flower of Vermont.

The flowers, leaves and stem are edible, and are sowed for cattle fodder. Red Clover is also good for soil quality, being important in nitrogen fixation.

This introduced clover, considered invasive by some authorities, is found in 43 states. It was brought into North America from Europe as cattle feed. It also can enrich the soil, fixing nitrogen.

This introduced species was originally brought to North America for fodder, but is now found wild in all but six states, and can be weedy and invasive. The original primary image I had on this page was actually not Trifolium campestre. It was of a similar-looking Medicago species.

Thanks to Robert Flogaus-Faust for bringing my attention to this incorrect identification. Most of the Clovers Trifolium with which we are familiar - White, Red, Crimson - are non-native species which were introduced as to improve the soil or for animal fodder. While there are over 60 Clover species native to the United States, only about a half-dozen are found east of the Mississippi River.

Trifolium eriocephalum , Woollyhead Clover, is one of the many western native Clovers. There are a number of varieties or, since this is a western species, subspecies of T.

Trifolium longipes is a similar plant with a similar but larger range, extending further east, and a similar habitat. I tentatively have concluded this is Trifolium eriocephalum rather than Trifolium longipes due to the reflexed flowers, described for Trifolium eriocephalum but absent from the description of Trifolium longipes in the Jepson manual.

This is a Lycopod rather than a flowering seed plant. Lycopods are among the plants known as fern-allies. Like ferns, it reproduces via spores from the club-like appendages above the plant. Diphasiastrum digitatum is a synonym for the newer scientific name Lycopodium digitatum. It is listed as "Exploitably Vulnerable" in New York. Possible toxicity, especially to pregnant women. This is the only native columbine in the eastern United States.

Black-eyed Susan is a commonly seen but uncommonly beautiful wildflower found along roadsides and open areas throughout much of the United States, missing only in Alaska, Arizona, Hawaii, and Nevada. This species, like many members of the species Rudbeckia genus, are frequently called 'black-eyed Susan' because of their nearly identical appearance to R.

Orange coneflower, Rudbeckia fulgida, itself is a highly variable species, with as many as 14 varieties. I believe this is R. Cutleaf Coneflower is widely distributed in the United States.

It is listed as Threatened in Rhode Island, but can be quite commonly found in many of the other states. Blooms in mid to late summer. Rudbeckia triloba can be a tall up to 5' or 6' , many-branched coneflower, with a flower having the appearance of a smaller Blackeyed Susan R. There are three commonly recognized varieties, with var triloba , so named because some of the lower leaves have 3 lobes, being the most widely distributed. Var ruprestris has somewhat larger flowers, and var pinnatiloba will have 5 to 7 lobes on some of the lower leaves.

While the USDA records do not show var pinnatiloba in Georgia, the photos on this page imply otherwise. Rudbeckia triloba is listed as Endangered in Florida. Eriophorum is a fairly small genus in the Cyperaceae Sedge family with about 25 species worldwide, 11 of which are found in North America.

They are mostly a northern plant, with most species being found in cool climates, even arctic regions. The species found in the United States are mostly in northern states, with a few extending their range in the Rocky Mountains signficantly southward.

Eriophorum virginicum is one of the exceptions. As is the case with many members of the Sedge family Cyperaceae , Eriophorum virginicum is a plant of bogs and moist meadows - another common name for the genus is Bog Cotton. While there are about 65 to 70 species of Heracleum worldwide, Heracleum maximum - American Cow Parsnip - is the only one native to North America, and is the only native species in that family found from the east to west coast of North America.

It is a large plant, the largest in the Carrot family native to the United States, although an invasive Cow Parsnip - Heracleum mantegazzianum Giant Hogweed is even larger. The juice of these plants contain a furanocoumarin compound which causes phytophotodermatitis, an extreme sensitivity to ultraviolet light. This can cause irritation or debilitating blistering of the skin after contact with the juices, and possible blindness if the juice gets in the eye.

You should exercise caution using protection such as gloves and long sleeves if you must handle the plant, and wash any juices off immediately. That being said, parts of the young plant were used by Native Americans for food, the plant was used in a variety of medicinal treatments, and the hollow stems were used for deer calls.

Heracleum maximum is primarily a more northern species, found from Maine to Washington State, and ranging as far south as Georgia in the eastern Appalachians, and south to California, Arizona, and New Mexico in the mountains.

It grows in moist woods and meadows. Heracleum lanatum Found in: Melampyrum is a genus of 20 to 35 species found in North America, Asia, and eastern Europe. They are hemiparasitic herbs, getting part of their nutrition from the roots of trees and shrubs.

It was likely this hemiparasitic characteristic that resulted in the move of Melampyrum from the Scrophulariaceae family into Orobanchaceae in the first decade of the 21st century. Melampyrum lineare is the only Cow Wheat species found in the United States.

It is a species primarily of the northern part of the country as well as southern Canada. It is found in all the northeastern states, and in the northern tier of states west to Washington except for North Dakota. Its ranges also extends southward primarily in the Appalachian Mountains as far south as Georgia and South Carolina. There are 3 or 4 recognized varieties of Melampyrum lineare , differentiated primarily by teeth on the bracteal leaves, how much the plant branches, the width of the leaves, and the internodal stem length.

Oxypolis is a small genus of 4 species of North America. Recent reclassification moved 3 other species out of Oxypolis and into Tiedemannia. Two species of Oxypolis have relatively narrow distribution in the western United States - Oxypolis occidentalis being found in the United States only in California and Oregon and Oxypolis fendleri in the Four Corners states and Wyoming - while Oxypolis ternata is found in the wet pine savannas and sandhill seepages of the southeastern states of North and South Carolinas, Georgia, and Florida.

Oxypolis rigidior is by far the most widely distributed species in the genus, being found in 28 states along the east coast outside of New England, from New York south to Florida and west to Texas and Minnesota. It is a plant of wet areas such as streambanks, bogs, and seepages.

Cowbane is toxic and should not be eaten. There are 3 species of Tipularia , with only Tipularia discolor being found in the United States.

The other two are Asian plants, 1 found in the Himalayas, and the other in Japan. Tipularia discolor is found in rich forests and oak-pine woods of the eastern part of the United States outside of New England, west to Illinois and south to Texas.

Bignonia is monotypic - a single species in the genus - although some authorities consider there to be over 20 species in the genus, including species from other genera such as Campsis and Dolichandra.

While there are herbs and shrubs in the Bignoniaceae family, most of the several hundred species in the family are trees or vines. Bignonia capreolata is one of the vines - a liana, a woody vine as opposed to an herbaceous vine. Six species in the family are found in the United States, three of which are lianas, three are trees. It is normally a plant of lower elevations, usually wet areas, but it can be found occasionally in mesic forests of the lower elevations on the western side of the Appalachian Mountains.

One of the photos on this page was taken in the Smoky Mountains. Cross Vine gets its common name from the appearance of the cross-section of the vine. This vine usually grows high into trees in swamps and bottomland forest, but can also be found in drier areas in much reduced size. Most of the Crownbeards have yellow blossoms, and bloom in mid to late summer. Verbesina occidentalis, like a couple of other Verbesina species - V. Yellow Crownbeard is a tall plant, from 3 feet to 10 feet tall.

This is a tall, yellow-blossomed plant found throughout most of the midwest and east outside of New England. It is listed as Threatened in New York. There are 18 Verbesina species in North America, with at least one species found in most states.

The extreme northwest, extreme northeast, and Minnesota don't have a Verbesina species. The composite flowers of White Crownbeard are, as expected based on the name, white. Of the 18 species, 6, including White Crownbeard, may have winged stems: Cymophyllus fraseri , Carex fraseri , and Carex fraseriana is a monotypic species - there are no other species in the genus.

While it is easily found in parts of its range, overall it is a rare plant. Chrysanthemum leucanthemum is a synonym for Leucanthemum vulgare , which is now the most widely accepted scientific name. This much-loved flower is an import from its native Europe and Asia, and is naturalized in every state in the United States and almost all of Canada.

It is officially considered a noxious weed in Colorado, Montana, Ohio, Washington, and Wyoming, so consider carefully before planting it. Dandelion - A variety of Taraxacum officinale ceratophorum is native to western parts of the United States, the the variety found in the east officinale , which is also found in the west, is introduced.

The blossom of this member of the Spiderwort family lasts for one day. Introduced from its native Asia, it is considered weedy or invasive by some authorities, having spread widely throughout eastern North America. This latter plant has paler blue upper petals. The pedicel flower stem of Slender Dayflower rises from a spathe which is fused along the lower portion; the spathe is open all the way to the base in the Asiatic Dayflower.

Commelina virginica grows in wet places, especially along swamps, rivers, and where this was photographed, along stream banks. It flowers from mid-summer and on into fall, growing in the southeastern quadrant of the United States as far west as Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas, and as far north as Illinois, Indiana and Ohio. It was historically present in Pennsylvania, but it is reported as being extirpated in that state. This plant was introduced from Asia for its excellent garden characteristics, and has become naturalized in 42 of the 50 states.

As an escapee, it is considered weedy or invasive by some authorities. The deadnettles are native to Europe and Asia, but are now widely naturalized in the United States. As with many non-native species which have become widespread in the U.

Henbit Deadnettle blooms early. It is easily confused with Purple Deadnettle - L. The middle and upper leaves of L. The leaves of Henbit L. Purple Deadnettle blooms early. A similar species is Henbit - L. Zigadenus paniculatus - a name still used by some authorities.

In addition to reclassification out of the Zigadenus genus, it has recently been moved out of Liliaceae and into the Melanthiaceae family. Only a single U. Interestingly, Trillium has also been moved out of Liliaceae and into the Melanthiaceae. I would not have guessed the close relationship between Trillium and other Melanthiaceae species.

Toxicoscordion paniculatum is a plant of the western United States, found in dry sagebrush scrub and conifer forests at moderately high elevations - from about 3, feet up to 7, feet. Due to the rarity of the plant in Arizona, collecting the plant is restricted in that state.

Toxicoscordion venenosum , which is a somewhat smaller species, and the inflorescence is a raceme rather than a panicle, although there might be a single branch at the bottom of the inflorescence.

My photos of this plant, however, show several branches, indicating a panicle, although the upper half of the inflorescence is racemose. What was formerly classified as Zigadenus leimanthoides , the plant presented here, was moved into Stenanthium as S. Stenanthium leimanthoides is a plant of diverse areas such as rock outcrops and seepages at relatively high elevations and bogs and wet pine savannas in the coastal plain.

There is some question as to whether populations near the Gulf Coast belong in this species, or instead should be included within Stenanthium densum - in fact, further confusing classification, Stenanthium leimanthoides was sometimes included within Zigadenus densus which subsequently became Stenanthium densum. Zigadenus and Stenanthium have been moved into the Melanthiaceae family as part of the dismantling of Liliaceae. As is implied by the common name the plants in this genus - all parts of them - are poisonous.

There are 22 species of Lycium - Desert-thorn - found in the United States, most of which are southwestern species. Lycium carolilnianum is the only native Desert-thorn found east of the Mississippi River. Lycium carolinianum is a shrub that grows from 6 to 10 feet tall. The branches are sharp-tipped. A parasitic vine that inserts suckers into the stem of its host plants. As the vine matures, its roots die and it gets all of its nourishment from the host.

Primarily a southeastern species, it is found in 8 states south of the Mason-Dixon line, as well as in New York and Maryland those disjunct populations may not be native.

Dog Hobble grows in dense thickets along mountain streams. Those shown on this page were near the banks of the Talullah River in north Georgia. Flowering dogwood, Cornus florida , the dogwood usually referenced simply as dogwood, is a small tree, growing up to 30 feet tall, although it is more typically 15 feet tall, and frequently as wide as it is tall. It brings an early splash of white to the undercover of the spring forest for several weeks in April or May.

This is apparently a recent DNA-based reclassification from the genus Cornus. This small tree or shrub of the southeastern United States is not as showy as its larger and well-known cousin, Cornus florida - the Flowering Dogwood.

However, it is an attractive tree, growing to about 20 tall. Cornus foemina , Stiff Dogwood synonym: Cornus stricta , is found in 19 states, as far north as Illinois and Delaware. Flowering Dogwood Cornus florida is found in 31 states, as far north as Maine and Michigan, as well as parts of Canada.

It is a shrub that grows up to about 12' tall. The stems are reddish from late summer into early fall, being a quite colorful red during winter until they transition to green as spring nears. It grows primarily in wet habitats. The plant I photographed was growing within the flood zone of a steep mountain creek near the bottom of the Kleinschmidt Grade in Adams County, Idaho.

Bunchberry is found throughout most of Canada and the northern tier of states in the United States, and it pushes south in the mountain regions, all the way to Virginia in the east and to New Mexico in the west.

It prefers cool, acidic soils and cannot survive if the soil gets warmer than 65 degrees Fahrenheit. The berries are reported to be edible, if not especially tasty on their own.

My apology for these photos which do not do the plant justice. In northern Minnesota in September when these photos were taken you do not expect either the plant to be blooming, and this year the berries had already dropped.

Additionally, the plant thrives in moist forests, and was a year of drought. Dutchman's Breeches is a lovely spring wildflower. The blossoms don't last long. Krigia is a small genus of about 7 species endemic to North America. Most species are only in the eastern part of the continent, east of the Great Plains, except for this plant, Krigia biflora. One of the two varieties, var.

The Krigia flowers are similar and closely related to those in the Hieracium genus. Plants in the Krigia genus are also known as Dwarf Dandelion or Dwarfdandelion because of the obvious similarity of their flower to the common Dandelion Taraxacum officinal.

There are 7 Krigia species, all native only to North America. Krigia dandelion grows in similar locations to Taraxacum officinal - woodlands, roadsides, lawns, disturbed areas, and waste areas, forming stoloniferous colonies. These photos are from a yard that I have selectively mowed, avoiding mowing native wildflowers until they have gone to seed.

Sambucus nigra ssp canadensis Native. This shrub grows up to 10 feet tall and has many stems, forming dense thickets. The leaves are pinnate, with usually 7, occasionally 5, and even more occasionally 9 lanceolate, serrated leaflets. The plant has large cymes of small white flowers which will produce dark purple to black berries which can be used in jams and to make wine.

The flowers, dried, can be used to make a tea. The unripe berries, the stems, and the leaves may be poisonous. This is the more widespread subspecies of the Black Elderberry, being found in all but 5 of the lower 48 states. It is also in Hawaii, but as an introduced species.

It was formerly classified as the separate species Sambucus canadensis. Blue Elderberry is found in much of the western half of the United States Found in: Sambucus nigra ssp cerulea Native. Western Blue Elder is a shrub or small tree that grows up to 25 feet tall and may have many stems, forming dense thickets.

The leaves are pinnate, with usually 3 to 9 lanceolate, serrated leaflets. The plant has large cymes of small white flowers which will produce blue berries in late summer which can be used in jams and to make wine, although the raw berries in large quantities may be poisonous. It was formerly classified as the separate species Sambucus cerulea.

Recent classification changes have also moved the genus Sambucus , along with Viburnum , out of the Honeysuckle Family and into the Muskroot Family. This subspecies of the Sambucus nigra is not as widespread as ssp. The color of the berries is the most sure way to tell the difference if you are in the 7 states where you may find either species - Montana, Colorado, Wyoming, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. Sambucus racemosa is a shrub occasionally a small tree in a genus of small trees and shrubs.

The number of species in the genus is subject to some disagreement among experts - ranging from about 9 to about 20 - with some botanists classifying as varieties or subspecies the plants that others classify as species. The species presented here, Sambucus racemosa , has 6 to 12 varieties and subspecies, depending on which authority you follow. While there are several other varieties in northwestern North America, the variety found in the east where this specimen was photographed is var.

Sambucus has relatively recently around the turn of the 21st century been moved from Caprifoliaceae into the Adoxaceae family, along with the closely related Viburnum genus. Sambucus racemosa is known as Red Elderberry due to the color of the berries, which are reported to be somewhat poisonous.

It is a more northern species than the other members of Sambucus found in North America, in its southern ranges found more in the mountains than in lower elevations, and is normally associated with rocky areas. This plant's alternating leaves arise along an unevenly pubescent stem. The plant branches at leaf axils usually after four non-branching leaf nodes. The blossom clusters, which arise from three leafy bracts, terminate the stems.

The white to pale lavender blossoms are very interesting in that they usually give the appearance of having a circle of many rays, but these apparently lobes of the corolla of several disk flowers.

Elephantopus flexuosus, Elephantopus violaceus, Elephantopus glaber. There are about species of Eryngium in the world, with about 35 in the United States. While most are native to the U. It appears that all Eryngium found in the wild in Canada are introduced.

While more Eryngium species are found in the western half of the country, the eastern Eryngium yuccifolium is the most widely distributed species of the genus in the United States it is not found in Canada. As with many plants, Eryngium yuccifolium was used and may continue to be used by native Americans for medicinal purposes, with the roots being used to relieve toothaches and as a remedy for bladder and kidney problems, and as indicated by one of its common names, as a treatment for snakebite, especially that of the rattlesnake.

It apparently has been introduced and naturalized in the other 22 states where it is found. While it is an attractive plant with a long bloom season, use caution because it can spread vigorously. Common Evening Primrose is found in all but 7 states. From Carol in Virginia: All the grandchildren love to gather around a plant and guess which one will open next. This tall plant is found throughout much of the southeast and into parts of the midwest. The Gaura genus has recently been moved into the Oenothera Evening Primrose genus; the new scientific name for this plant is Oenothera filipes , so the genus common name has changed from Beeblossom to Evening Primrose.

While more accurate scientifically, it makes a somewhat large and confusing genus even larger and more confusing.

More changes to Oenothera will likely be coming While there are Oenothera species in every state except for Alaska also in all of Canada except Yukon , Oenothera pallida is a western species, being found in 11 western states, and in British Columbia.

It can bloom from mid-spring on well into the fall. Oenothera macrocarpa ssp macrocarpa Native. Oenothera is a large genus of about species as now classified, with Evening Primroses found in temperate to subtropical areas of North, Central, and South America. The area with most species is the southwest of the United States, and there are Oenothera species in every state except for Alaska also in all of Canada except Yukon.

The genus is somewhat in flux, with several genera of Onagraceae , such as Gaura having been moved into Oenothera based on studies published early in the 21st century. Oenothera macrocarpa is a species of mid-America, found in rocky sites like bluffs, rocky prairies, and glades from Nebraska south to Texas and east to the Mississippi River. It is also found in a county or so each in Illinois, Tennessee, and Wyoming, states where it is considered rare, and is legally protected in Tennessee.

There are 4 or 5 recognized subspecies: Between the subspecies are differences in leaf shape and margin, growth habit, hairiness, and other small morphological attributes. Oenothera missouriensis Found in: Blepharipappus scaber is the only species in the genus.

The plant grows from 4 to 12 inches tall and is found in dry, open areas in five western states. This specimen was along a hillside at about 3,' - ' in the Boise Foothills.

Calypso bulbosa is the only species in the genus, but there are two varieties. It is found only in Washington, Oregon, California, and Idaho, and is the variety shown here. It is also found in the Rocky Mountain states down through Arizona. The eastern variety has more lip bristles, and they are yellow. It is also protected in Arizona. Disporum lanuginosum is a synonym of Prosartes lanuginosa , the commonly accepted scientific name for this species.

The five species of the genus Disporum that are in North America have recently been reclassified into a separate genus - Prosartes - and moved into the Liliaceae family out of the Colchicaceae family.

Yellow Fairybells is an attractive plant growing to 36" tall, with alternating, glossy green entire leaves which are ovate or lanceolate and have prominent parallel veins. The five species of the genus Disporum that are in North America have been reclassified into a separate genus - Prosartes - which is placed in the Liliaceae family rather than the Colchicaceae family where Disporum resides. This is interesting in that it seems that Liliaceae is generally being disassembled, so I have to wonder if this family is a temporary holding place for Prosartes.

Prosartes maculata grows in rich deciduous forests from Michigan where it may be extirpated southward to northern Georgia and Alabama. In the southern part of its range is a plant of the more mountainous regions. It is less common than the similar Prosartes lanuginosa Yellow Mandarin and is considered rare or uncommon in every state where it is found.

Chamaelirium luteum is a dioecious, monotypic species of wet meadows and deciduous woods in the eastern part of the United States.

It is variable listed in the following families: Liliaceae - the Lily family, Melanthiaceae - the False-Hellebore Family, or Helondiadaceae - the Swamp-pink Family, the latter ones being created by the redistribution of Liliaceae.

Since ITIS places it in Melanthiaceae , and based on the inflorescence it seems suitable in that family, I will also include it there. It was formerly classified as Gerardia purpurea. This branching plant may be found in sprawling colonies. It has dark green to purple leaves and stems to about 2-feet tall, with small pink to purple blossoms.

Agalinis purpurea Smooth Purple Gerardia - Although the specimen photographed on this page have yellow in the throat as does A. While the specimens I photographed for this page have hairy stamens, I detected no hair in the corolla tube itself - a characteristic of A. Agalinis gattingeri Gattinger's Gerardia - A. In researching another Agalinis species, I found that ITIS lists this genus in Orobanchaceae - the Broom-rape family, so I have updated this record, moving it out of the former classification within Scrophulariaceae - the Figwort family.

Nothoscordum bivalve was formerly classified in the lily family, but has recently been moved to the Amaryllis family. It does not have the oniony-smell of true garlics and onions. It is classified as Rare in Indiana, and as Threatened in Ohio.

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